Last week we reported some interesting findings on the effects of different arrangement aimed at helping women in the workplace on female physician’s career motivation. Today, we would like to focus on other effects of those measures, working part-time. This measure aims to give women, especially those with kids, the opportunity to spend more time at home without abandoning their careers. However, a study by Rosemary Crompton and Clare Lyonette shows how problematic part-time work can be. In their qualitative study with accountants and physicians they find that working part-time is perceived as quite detrimental to women’s careers and the type of work they can do, especially for physicians working in hospitals. One participant notes:
“a lot of the time the part-time posts are just waiting list initiatives, you know, they need somebody to see this number of back pains or this number of people with such and such, whereas a full-time post, you’re part of a team, you’re setting up a service or doing something a bit more meaningful. So it would be difficult to get the equivalent post as a part-time person, I think.”
The authors also note that women in medicine try to avoid specialties in which part-time work might be detrimental (such as surgery) and prefer going into General Practice, which is perceived as more family friendly. On the bright side – at least for all you women in medicine – , the authors find that women in medicine fare considerably better than those in accountancy. However, whether that holds true for women in surgery, is another question.
Working women with children in general and those in masculine domains in particular are confronted with a dilemma: Based on traditional gender roles, the ideal of a good mother requires them to focus most of their attention on their children and make sure they spend enough time at home, while the ideal of a good worker involves being committed to their job and able to focus most of their time and attention on work related issues. Men don’t face this issue as the ideal father is mostly characterised by being able to provide for their family, which is not in conflict with the ideal worker. So how do women deal with this conflict and how does it relate to their career motivation? Moreover, how can organisations alleviate this conflict?
A study by Berber Pas and colleagues from the Netherlands distinguishes between four different groups of women: Those who identified with the role of the ideal mother but not the role of the ideal worker (the authors call this the care goal frame), those who identify highly with the role of the ideal worker but not the role of the ideal mother (career goal frame), those who identify highly with both (switching goal frames) and those who don’t identify highly with either (non-traditional goal frames).
They further distinguish between three different types of policies which organisations implement in order to help working mothers. One set of arrangements aims at providing working mothers with the opportunity to fulfill their role as an ideal mother and spend more time with their children (ideal mother arrangements), for example part-time work arrangements. Another set of measures (ideal worker arrangements) aims at helping women to fulfill their roles as ideal workers, for example by providing coaching and mentoring. The last set of arrangements (revising work-culture arrangements) includes measures such as flexible work hours and is generally presented in a non-gendered way.
They investigated the relationship between these variables and career motivation in a large sample of female physicians and found that those women with switching goal frames were just as motivated as those with career goal frames and more motivated than the other two groups. Not surprisingly, the effectiveness of measures to increase women’s motivation depended on their goal frames. Women with career goal frames benefited from ideal worker arrangements whereas those with care goal frames benefited from ideal mother arrangements. Revising work-culture arrangements were overall the most motivating regardless of goal frames.
For more details, please check out the original paper, which is a very fascinating read.