Affirmative action policies often encounter resistance even among those groups who they are designed to help. One of the reasons for this is that they are typically implemented in a “top down” fashion: Those in leadership positions within or outside of an organisation identify the need for affirmative action, decide on the policies and “force” them on the organisation.
A study by Louise McCall and colleagues addresses this issue by investigating whether a “bottom up” approach is more effective. They used focus groups to raise awareness of the under-representation of women in senior positions in academic medicine and to develop equal opportunity strategies. This approach did indeed result in a number of benefits. Not only did members of the focus groups come up with their own ideas of addressing gender inequality, but members of the faculty were also more accepting and supportive of the developed affirmative action strategies.
Lack of acceptance of affirmative action has been shown to be one of the main barriers to its effectiveness. Using focus groups or other “bottom up” approaches might be a great way of circumventing this problem and tackling inequality issues more effectively.